Among the Turkmen in Central Asia, the uz cups possess the richest literary heritage. Records of folk poetry exist from the 11th century, and even more popular today are the anecdotes about Nasreddin hodscha, a Turkish To Eulenspiegel. As the Uzbek national call is counted Alisjer Navoi, who in his very extensive love lyric and philosophical poems, among others. in “Hamze” (‘Five Poems’, 1483-85), the Uzbek language’s distinctiveness asserted itself against the prevailing literary language in the area, the Persian. Of great cultural-historical interest are also the many chronicles of the Uzbek rulers’ war train in the 16th century.
- Countryaah: Population and demographics of Uzbekistan, including population pyramid, density map, projection, data, and distribution.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the national tradition was broken against Russian influence. One of those who adopted the Russian realistic narrative style was Hakim-zazed Hamza, who during the Soviet period was regarded as the founder of socialist literature in Uzbekistan. In recent decades, primarily in Russian, Uzbek motives have been developed by Timur Pulatov, whose childhood portrayal “The Selfish of Buchara” (1980) with its sharpness of detail and its insight into the conditions of the cultural meeting has gained international attention.
The first film studio was established in 1925 at the Muslim University of Tashkent. From the beginning there was a strong element of film workers from Leningrad and Moscow at the studio. In the mid-1930’s, the first director of Uzbek origin, Nabi Ganjev (1904-52) appeared. During World War II, film studios were evacuated from the European part of the Soviet Union to, among other things, Tashkent. Among those who came to be active here are Michail Romm.
Since the 1950’s, Uzbek directors have been dominant, with Nestor Sjukhrat Abbasov (born 1931) as one of the most active. Otherwise, Ali Khamrajev (born 1937) and Elier Ishmukhamedov (born 1942) are among the best known as well as Roza Mergenbajeva in the documentary. After independence, the lack of capital has reduced production to 2-3 films per year.
Zinovi Roizman (born 1941) and Jusup Razykov (born 1957) are among the directors who were noted in the 1990’s and 2000’s.
A monumental and decorative rich brick architecture of mosques, mausoleums and madrasas from the 9th century onwards can be found especially abundant in Samarkand and Buchara. The dome and the highest porch, pishtaq, form expressive elements. A highlight is the timurider’s facilities in Samarkand, among others. the tomb monument Gur-e Mir (c. 1405). In Chiva, the traditional Central Asian city is fully preserved.
Otherwise, the cities are strongly influenced by the Soviet era’s construction. Here are many examples of regionally oriented classicism, e.g. the opera in Tashkent (1947) performed by Aleksej Shchusev in collaboration with traditionally working craftsmen. The dominant large-scale modernism of recent decades has not excluded attempts to merge new technical and functional contexts with the historical heritage’s design language, which in the rich 1980’s metro stations in Tashkent.
Uzbek music, basically unanimous, modal, with a great number of shell types and rhythms, is closely related to Tajik and Ujgurian, in western Uzbekistan also to Turkmen and Kazakh music. Music life has developed in close interaction between city and country. In the countryside, farmers and nomadic groups have preserved ancient pre-Islamic forms of music, akin to other Turkish peoples. In the cities, Muslim art forms have been developed and refined, influenced mainly by Persian and Arab culture. Following Russia’s occupation of Tashkent in 1865, the Russian population grew rapidly and the city became an important European musical center.
Four regional styles can be distinguished: the steppes in the south with shepherd culture and wandering bards (bachshi, ashik) who accompany epic songs (dastan) on the long-necked judas or duds; the richly developed music scene in the cosmopolitan Bukhara-Samarkand area, with the classical music form Shashmakom (see Tajikistan, Music); Tashkent-Fergana area with women’s songs, female dutar players and a distinctive classical court music, charm comb, and finally the Chorezm region, with Russian influences, among others. accordion.
The instrumentation is rich and similar to that of other Central Asian countries. An important part of instrumental music, kui, has a programmatic, narrative content. Common instruments are long neck sounds (juda, dutar, tanbur, rabab), fiddle (kobuz, gidzjak), cittra (tong), flutes (naj, sibisga, kuraj), clarinets (kosjnaj, balabam), oboe (surnaj) and drums (dol), nagara, dojra). They are played soloistically or in small ensembles. A classical instrumental ensemble features nah, tanbur and dojra as a core and other instruments as additions. A military orchestra, spread across much of Asia, consists of surnaj, nagara and trumpet (karnaj).
An important social institution is toj, festivities with music performance, socializing and conversation, in connection with eg. baptism, wedding or circumcision. As in most Muslim countries, such parties, like most of the music and dance life, are divided into male and female versions. This creates space for both male dancers (often boys dressed as women) and professional female musicians. During and after the Soviet era, celebrations by European model with mixed audiences were also introduced.
During the Soviet era, a conservatory was established in Tashkent in 1934, an operating theater in 1947 and an important record factory. New folk orchestras were created, with reconstructed instruments and tempered mood, for which a new national folk music was composed. Composers such as Alexei Kozlovsky (1905-77) (who wrote, among others, the ※national opera§ Ulugbek) and Mutavakill Burchanov (1916-02) both used themes from Central Asian music.
In recent decades, a vibrant popular music has been developed, including singer Yildiz Usmanova (born 1963) and groups like Yalla. In connection with the national wave that emerged after independence, many forms of Uzbek music gained renewed popularity, while many musicians emigrated. Others, such as the very popular singer Sherali Djurajev, were banned from public appearances. There is an emerging Uzbek music industry in interaction with music markets in neighboring countries, Turkey, the United States and Western Europe.