China Economic Sectors

Rice terraces in china

Agricultural economics The famous rice terraces aptly symbolize the dilemma of the agricultural economy in China: Although a large country in area, only about a tenth of the total area is suitable for agricultural use. At the same time, China is forced to supply over 20% of the world’s population with 10% of the world’s agricultural area. Agricultural ingenuity already included terrace construction, irrigation technology, higher-yielding fruit varieties and much…

Read More

China Economy Overview

China shenzhen

Estimated GDP: 12,682 billion euros (2019) Per capita income (purchasing power parity): EUR 9,073.4 (2019) Human Development Rank (HDI): 85th Rank (of 189) (2019) Proportion of poverty (national standard about $ 1 per day): 3.3% Distribution of income (Gini coefficient): 46.5 (2016) Economic Transformation Index (BTI): Rank 30 (of 137) (2020) No country has ever experienced faster economic growth than the PRC. In the years from 2000 to 2010, China…

Read More

China Rule of Law and Human Rights

National coat of arms of the People's Republic of China

Justice and Jurisprudence The current legal system is a result of the economic reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping in the early 1980’s. The negative experiences of the cultural revolution, the introduction of free-market processes and increased international cooperation made it necessary to develop new and reliable regulations. Much of the Chinese law has therefore been enacted over the past 30 years. This includes not only economic and foreign trade laws…

Read More

China Military and Armed Conflict

National flag of the People's Republic of China

The Chinese military is still the central power factor in China today. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is directly controlled by the Chinese Communist Party. The highest body is the CCP Central Military Commission. Its chairman is widely regarded as the most powerful person in the PRC and is usually also the general secretary of the CCP. The VBA’s doctrine is set out in irregularly published white papers, the last…

Read More

China Foreign Policy

China's provinces

Historically, China’s return to the international scene dates back to an initiative by Mao Zedong. In 1949 he had initially allied with Stalin. At the end of the 1950’s, however, there was an ideological break with the Soviet Union under Khrushchev, which in 1969 even resulted in a small border war. Since Mao was now afraid of an attack by the Soviet Union, he decided to move closer to the…

Read More

China Media and Freedom of Expression

Construction work on the building of the Chinese State Television

Newspapers and radio The central news organ of the PRC is the Xinhua news agency, which supplies the Chinese mass media with national and international news. The Xinhua Agency is the PRC’s news monopoly and can tell newspapers and radio stations what news should be published. The Xinhua Agency owns a number of important newspapers. The most famous newspaper is the Renmin Ribao (People’s Newspaper), which has been the central…

Read More

China Corruption and Human Rights

Mao portrait at Tian'anmen China

Corruption Corruption was and is a big issue in China. It can be found at all levels of the party, state, military and economy and is perceived by many Chinese as a great evil. Aside from the major scandals involving leaders from politics and business, the corruption of local cadres, which is rampant in rural areas, is a major problem. These often use the administrative sovereignty over land rights to…

Read More

China Constitution and Government Structure

National People's Congress in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing China

The Constitution of the PRC The PRC has had a constitution since 1954. The current constitution of the People’s Republic of China dates from 1982 and was last amended in 2004. The constitutional text deals with the basic rights and duties of Chinese citizens and defines the organization of the state-building. According to the constitution, the head of state is the state president, who, however, has a more representative role…

Read More

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP)

China President Xi Jinping

The People’s Republic of China is ruled by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The CCP is the most powerful political organization to which all state institutions are de facto subordinate. Other parties that are tolerated by the CCP, such as the Democratic Federation or the Guomindang Revolutionary Committee, are de facto powerless. Although the CCP has close to 90 million members, which is over 6% of the population, much of…

Read More

The Second Phase of Reform in China

China General Secretary Jiang Zemin

Jiang Zemin’s reign As a result of the events of 1989, there was a temporary revival of state economic mechanisms due to the now overwhelming conservative forces in the government. Deng Xiaoping vehemently opposed these efforts in the spring of 1992 by regaining the economic policy initiative with a propaganda tour known today as the “Journey to the South” for the expansion of economic reforms. The CCP General Secretary Jiang…

Read More