A Burmese empire with capital Pagan (‘city of a thousand temples’), was founded before the 11th century. and destroyed by the Mongols in 1287. A period of anarchy followed, during which the Thai principalities of the North and East became independent and the kingdoms of Ava, Pegu and Taungu developed. The reunification of the country (17th century) was accompanied by the development of the northern capital, Ava, again replaced by Pegu in the 18th century.
- The subsequent expansion towards NW (Assam) led to conflict with the British, who conquered Burma and transformed it into a province of India until 1937, when it was established as a Crown colony. Conquered by the Japanese in 1942, its strategic importance prompted its reconquest. The Burmese nationalist forces (led by Aung San and U Nu), who had initially collaborated with Japan, obtaining purely formal independence from this, in 1945 they joined the allies and participated in the last phase of the war, claiming after its conclusion the end of the colonial regime. Independence was achieved in 1948 and U Nu took over the leadership of the provisional government, but the critical situation in the country (communist uprising, Karen rebellion, penetration of Chinese nationalist troops in 1950) prevented the holding of legislative elections until 1952. These sanctioned the hegemony of the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL) and a relative stabilization. In 1962 the persistence of outbreaks of guerrillas, separatist tendencies in the eastern regions and serious economic difficulties led the military to a coup. Established the Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP), the military government, led by Ne Win, it suppressed all other parties and decided on a series of nationalizations. In 1974, with a new Constitution, the country took the official name of the Socialist Republic of the Burmese Union, the BSPP was recognized as a single party and a new, more centralized state apparatus was established. But difficult economic conditions fueled social conflicts and ethnic tensions, while various areas still escaped the control of the central government. In 1988 the explosion of popular protest in major cities forced the BSPP was recognized as a single party and a new, more centralized state apparatus was established. But difficult economic conditions fueled social conflicts and ethnic tensions, while various areas still escaped the control of the central government. In 1988 the explosion of popular protest in major cities forced the BSPP was recognized as a single party and a new, more centralized state apparatus was established. But difficult economic conditions fueled social conflicts and ethnic tensions, while various areas still escaped the control of the central government. In 1988 the explosion of popular protest in major cities forced Ne Win to resign; after a harsh repression, a military government was formed, chaired by Saw Maung.
- After the defeat suffered in the May 1990 elections, won by the National League for Democracy (NLD) led by the Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi, the military regime seemed to be initiating a policy of cautious democratization. Than Shwe, who succeeded Saw Maung in 1992, convened a National Convention in 1993with the task of drafting a new Constitution, which, however, did not obtain results in the face of the refusal of the delegates appointed by the government, who constituted the clear majority, to question the central role of the army and the presence of military elements both in the bicameral Parliament both in local administrative institutions. The withdrawal of the NLD from the work of the Constituent Assembly (1995) and the intensification of the persecutions against the opponents of the regime exacerbated the political climate again. The conflicts with ethnic minorities also continued, the clashes between the regular army and the rebel militias along the border with Thailand and the offensives against the army of Khun Sa’a, the largest opium producer of Myanmar, which in the 1994 had proclaimed the birth of an independent Shan State. In 1997 the entry of Myanmar in ASEAN it entailed a full integration of the country into the regional economy of Southeast Asia as well as a legitimation of the regime itself, while the Western countries maintained a condemnatory attitude towards the continuous violations of human rights, the use of forced labor and the permissive policy towards drug trafficking. The dissolution of the military junta in November 1997 did not lead to changes of address. The new governing body, in fact, is called The dissolution of the military junta in November 1997 did not lead to changes of address. The new governing body, in fact, is called The dissolution of the military junta in November 1997 did not lead to changes of address. The new governing body, in fact, is called State Council for Peace and Development, did not abolish martial law or restore the democratic institutions provided for in the 1974 Constitution, and continued to be a full-fledged military junta made up of younger officers, but always headed by General Than Shwe. The attitude towards the opposition also remained unchanged, whose exponents continued to be subjected to indiscriminate intimidation and arrests; especially Aung San Suu Kyi remained subject to severe restrictions on personal freedoms. In the summer of 2007, the popular protests for the increase in the cost of living took on the significance of political protest by the military junta, which responded with a harsh repression, especially against the Buddhist monks animating the marches and requests for reform. In the nov. 2010 the first parliamentary elections after those of 1990 were called. Boycotted by the NLD and accused of being a farce, they saw the winner of the regime party, the Union solidary and development party (USDP). In the presidential consultations in January 2011, the former prime minister and former general Thein Sein was elected, while in the supplementary consultations held in April 2012 – after the transfer of power to a civilian government in the previous year, which was considered a ‘ emanation of the military one, and after the choice of Aung San Suu Kyi, back in full freedom in 2010, to run as a member of the national parliament – the NLD has established itself as the main force of the opposition, and in Kahwmu, the constituency in which presented, the leader was elected with 82% of the votes. Although parliament is still dominated by army allies, the opposition has gained extremely useful acclaim and visibility ahead of the 2015 consultations, to which Aung San Suu Kyi officially presented her candidacy in June 2013. Held in November 2015, the first free elections in the country since the end of the military dictatorship recorded the clear affirmation of the dissident’s party, which reported over 70% of the preferences; The historic result was also achieved in March 2016 with the appointment to the country’s presidency of the economist Htin Kyaw, also a member of the NLD, the first civilian elected after 54 years of military dictatorships and right-hand man of Aung San Suu Kyi, unable to hire this office due to the failure to amend an article of the Constitution which prohibits anyone who is married to a foreigner or has children with a foreign passport from running for this role. In March 2018 Htin Kyaw resigned, taking over from him in the same month Win Myint. The by-elections held in November 2018, however, recorded a marked decrease in the consensus for the NLD which, although it still enjoys the support of the majority, won only 7 out of 13 seats, losing especially in the provinces where minorities are strong. following the serious ethnic crisis resulting from the violence perpetrated by the Burmese army against the Muslim Rohingya minority, which cost Aung San Suu Kyi harsh criticism from the international community. At the consultations held in November 2020, the NLD of women politicians again won the majority of seats in Parliament but, after a phase of growing tension with the civil government due to the alleged irregularities in the conduct of the vote, in January 2021 the armed forces put in place a coup d’etat is carried out, arresting Aung San Suu Kyi and transferring all powers to General Min Aung Hlaing, head of the armed forces;