Indian Literature 3

The oldest surviving work in Hindi literature is the heroic epic “Prithiraj-raso” by Cand Bardai (* 1192), reporting on the life of the Rajputs. It formed the starting point for panegyric courtly poetry, which was also promoted by Islamic princes. In addition, numerous works originating from the worship of Krishna appeared in the 15th century, including: that of Vidyapati Thakur (* 1360, † 1450) from Mithila, the Princess Mirabai from Jodhpur, the blind poet Surdas and the weaver Kabir, who tried to fuse the popular Hindu religion with Islam. The Nanak influenced by him founded the religion of the Sikhs. A masterpiece that is still popular today was created by Tulsidas in the 16th century with his new creation of the Rama legend (“Ramcaritmanas”).

At the beginning of the modern era stands the creator of Hochhindi, Lalluji Lal (* 1763, † 1835), who edited various Sanskrit works in Hindi. According to softwareleverage, the prose literature of the 19th century was inspired by Harishcandra (* 1850, † 1885). Nirala (* 1898, † 1961) and Sumitranand Pant (* 1900, † 1977), initially supporters of the romantic Chayavada movement of the 1920s and 30s, later felt committed to the “progressist” school, which also extends beyond the borders of India well-known socially critical novels Premacanda (* 1881, † 1936; also wrote in Urdu) can be attributed. Mahadevi Varma (* 1907, † 1987) The tradition of the Althindi opened up. The German translation contains, inter alia. Stories by Jainendra Kumar (* 1905, † 1988), M. Varma and the writer Mannu Bhandari (* 1931) as well as short stories by Renu. Also, stories, essays and poems by Ajneya (that is S. H. Vatsyayan, * 1911, † 1987) as well as poems by Raghuvir Sahay (* 1929, † 1990) and Vishnu Khare (* 1940) have been translated into German. Also from the short stories and plays by Mohan Rakesh (* 1925, † 1972) as well as the novels, short stories and culture-critical essays Nirmal Vermas (* 1929, † 2005) some are available in German translation.

The first great poetry in Marathi literature is a commentary (around 1290) by the Brahmin ascetic Jnaneshvar on the Bhagavadgita. The works of the tailor Namdev (* 1270, † 1350), Eknath and Tukaram, the most influential poet of Maharashtra, who were expelled from the Brahmin caste because of his rejection of the caste system, belong to the circle of Vishnuitic poetry. The founder of modern Marathilyrik is Keshavsut (* 1865, † 1905), the prose literature of the essayist and nationalistVishnushastra Chiplunkar (* 1850, † 1882). Hari Narayan Apte (* 1864, † 1919) and D. M. Pitale (* 1882, † 1928) wrote v. a. historical novels, V. M. Joshi (* 1882, † 1943) also turned to psychological topics. Well-known contemporary authors include the playwright Vijay D. Tendulkar and the storytellers Daya Pawar (* 1935, † 1996) and Vyankatesh Madgulkar (* 1927, † 2001). Poems by Arun Kolatkar (* 1932, † 2004) and Dilip Chitre (* 1938, † 2009) are available in German translation. D. Chitre also translated a selection of Tukaram’s poems into English, which has since appeared in German.

The Oriyaliteratur began with the songs of Markandadasa in the 14th century and reached with creating Upendrabhanjas (* 1670, † 1720) peaked. This was followed by adaptations of the great epics, with the legends about Krishna in the foreground. The modern age was introduced by the prose writers Madhusudan Rao (* 1853, † 1912), Phakirmohan Senapati (* 1843, † 1918) and Radhanath Ray (* 1848, † 1908). The songs of Gopabandhu Das (* 1877, † 1928) were in the service of nationalism. The poet, narrator, playwright and essayist Kalindi Charan Panigrahi (* 1901, † 1988) developed into a representative of realism.. The poems by Sitakant Mahapatra (* 1937) reflect a new awareness of art.

The modern Dravidian literature includes numerous philosophical texts in the Shivaite tradition of the south (including von Shrinath, * 1365, † 1440). The Teluguliteratur experienced in the first half of the 16th century at the court of Vijayanagar, where inter alia. also Kannada was spoken, a bloom. The 18th century was the time of popular genres (hymns, folk dramas, etc.). With K. Viresalingam Pantulu (* 1848, † 1919) a new beginning of the Teluguliteratur began, the modernization of the Tamil language succeeded Subrahmanya Bharati (* 1882, † 1921). In the Telugu poem by Sri Sri (* 1910, † 1983) an uncompromisingly progressive stance emerged. The socially critical novel found important representatives in Malayalam (Takazhi Shivasankara Pillai, * 1912, † 1999), Kannada (Udipi R. Ananthamurthy, * 1932, † 2014) and Tamil (D. Jayakanthan, * 1934, † 2015). The novel “Khasakkinte ltihasam” (1969; German “The Legends of Khasak”) by the Malayalam writer Ottupulakkal Velukkutty Vijayan (* 1930, † 2005) is significant for a growing political and ideological disillusionment. Other outstanding poets from the South are the Tamil storytellers Ka Naa Subramanyam (* 1912, † 1989) and Ashokamitran (* 1931, † 2017) as well as the v. a. writers R. Rao (including essays in Kannada) and R. K. Narayan who have emerged with English publications. In addition to English, the narrator K. Das also uses Malayalam as a literary language.

The authors of postmodernist literature in Kannada include: Purnachandra Tejasvi (* 1938, † 2007), who in his novels and short stories combines environmental concerns with the tension of detective novels, the playwright Girish Raghunath Karnad (* 1938), who also works as an actor and director. and Devanura Mahadeva (* 1948), who is considered the most important representative of Dalit literature. The latter takes material from the oral traditions in his rural caste dialect as the starting point for a new literary perspective, which is also expressed in his sometimes oppressive, sometimes almost humorous and sometimes wonderful short stories.

Indian Literature 3