Sofia, the capital and largest city of Bulgaria, is located in the western part of the country, at the foot of Vitosha Mountain. Bulgaria is known for its rich history, diverse landscapes, and cultural heritage. Sofia experiences a continental climate, characterized by distinct seasons, with hot summers and cold winters. To provide a comprehensive description of Sofia’s climate, it’s essential to examine various aspects, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, and seasonal variations.

Geographical Location and Altitude:

According to andyeducation, Sofia is situated in a valley surrounded by mountains, including Vitosha Mountain to the south and the Balkan Mountains to the north. Its geographical location and elevation contribute significantly to its climate characteristics.

Seasonal Overview:

Sofia experiences four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn (fall), and winter. Each season brings its own weather patterns and contributes to the city’s overall climate.

Spring (March to May):

Spring in Sofia is a time of transition from the cold winter to warmer and more comfortable weather. March marks the beginning of spring, with average high temperatures ranging from 8°C to 13°C (46°F to 55°F). Nights can still be chilly, often dropping to near freezing.

As spring progresses into April and May, temperatures continue to rise, and the city experiences milder and more pleasant weather. Average high temperatures range from 14°C to 19°C (57°F to 66°F) in April and 18°C to 23°C (64°F to 73°F) in May. Spring is relatively wet, with occasional rainfall, but it’s also a time when the city’s parks and gardens come to life with blooming flowers and greenery.

Summer (June to August):

Summer in Sofia is characterized by warm to hot weather, along with longer daylight hours. June marks the beginning of summer, with average high temperatures ranging from 23°C to 26°C (73°F to 79°F). July and August are the warmest months, with average high temperatures often exceeding 27°C (81°F).

During the summer months, Sofia experiences lower humidity levels, making the warm temperatures more bearable. Rainfall is generally low, and the city enjoys plenty of sunshine, making it an ideal time for outdoor activities, exploring historic sites, and enjoying the region’s natural beauty.

Autumn (September to November):

According to existingcountries, autumn in Sofia is marked by a gradual decrease in temperatures and the transition from summer to cooler weather. September begins with average high temperatures ranging from 22°C to 25°C (72°F to 77°F), still carrying some of the summer warmth.

As autumn progresses into October and November, temperatures decrease further, and the city experiences cooler and more refreshing weather. Average high temperatures range from 17°C to 21°C (63°F to 70°F) in October and 11°C to 14°C (52°F to 57°F) in November. Nights become cooler, often dropping to single digits.

Autumn is a season of change, with colorful foliage in the surrounding forests and an increase in rainfall. While the weather becomes cooler, autumn provides a beautiful backdrop for exploring the city’s historic neighborhoods and parks.

Winter (December to February):

Winter in Sofia is cold and often snowy, with temperatures dropping significantly. December marks the start of winter, with average high temperatures ranging from 3°C to 6°C (37°F to 43°F). January is the coldest month, with average high temperatures between -1°C and 2°C (30°F to 36°F). Nights during the winter months can be bitterly cold, often dropping well below freezing.

While Sofia experiences cold winters, they are generally manageable for residents and visitors. The city typically receives moderate to heavy snowfall, with snow cover lasting for an extended period. Winter sports enthusiasts can take advantage of Vitosha Mountain, which offers skiing and snowboarding opportunities.


Sofia receives a moderate amount of precipitation throughout the year. The wettest months are typically May and June, with the highest rainfall totals. The annual average rainfall in Sofia is approximately 550 millimeters (22 inches).

During the winter months, Sofia experiences significant snowfall, particularly in December, January, and February. Snowfall can create picturesque winter landscapes but may also lead to temporary disruptions in transportation.

Humidity and Wind:

Humidity levels in Sofia vary with the seasons. Summers tend to be less humid, with more comfortable humidity levels. Winters can bring higher humidity levels, particularly during and after snowfall events.

Winds in Sofia are generally light to moderate, with no prevailing strong winds. The city’s high-altitude location and mountainous terrain do not typically lead to extreme wind conditions.

Climate Variability and Extreme Weather Events:

Sofia is not prone to extreme weather events like hurricanes, tornadoes, or significant flooding. While it experiences notable temperature variations throughout the year, it is generally well-prepared for the wet and dry seasons and the occasional heavy snowfall during winter.


In summary, Sofia, Bulgaria, enjoys a continental climate with four distinct seasons. Summers are warm, winters are cold, and spring and autumn provide transitional periods with milder temperatures and changing landscapes. Sofia’s climate offers a diverse range of experiences throughout the year, making it an attractive destination for tourists interested in history, culture, and seasonal activities.